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The Application of Layers of Protection Analysis (LOPA)


In a typical process, various protection layers are in place to lower the frequency of undesired consequences: the process design (including inherently safer concepts); the basic process control system; safety instrumented systems; passive devices (such as Tank bunds); active devices (such as relief valves); human intervention; etc. The problem is how to determine the effectiveness of these layers of protection and to assess if the risk has been reduced to what can be considered a tolerable level.

LOPA is a simplified risk analysis technique that helps us answer these problems. The technique typically uses order of magnitude categories for initiating event frequency, consequence severity, and the likelihood of failure of independent protection layers (IPLs) to analyse a hazard scenario.  LOPA is an analysis tool that typically builds on the information developed during a qualitative hazard evaluation, such as a process hazard analysis (PHA).  Like many other hazard analysis methods, the primary purpose of LOPA is to determine if there are sufficient layers of protection against a hazard scenario.  A scenario may require one or many protection layers depending on the process complexity and potential severity of a consequence.   

This course is designed to provide participants with a comprehensive knowledge of the LOPA process.  It will discuss the strengths and limitations of LOPA.  It will describe the requirements for implementing LOPA in an organization and provide worked examples of how to apply LOPA successfully.

Course Objectives

Upon the successful completion of this course, each participant will be able to:

  • Understand and apply Layer of Protection Analysis effectively
  • Use LOPA as a part of the safety life cycle and recognize its strengths and limitations
  • Experience applying the LOPA technique
  • Estimate the consequences and severity of hazard scenarios
  • Develop and evaluate LOPA scenarios and components and estimate initiating event frequencies
  • Identify independent protection layers and analyse their effectiveness
  • Determine the tolerable frequency of scenarios and calculate the associated risks
  • Describe the requirements for implementing LOPA in an organization
  • Take an effective part in future LOPA studies.

The workshop will be based around a case study and a number of LOPA practical team exercises to stimulate a realistic risk assessment experience.

The methodology applied is based on‘Layer of Protection Analysis Simplified Risk Analysis; American Institution of Chemical Engineering ISBN 0-8169-0811-7 and latest HSE guidance



No previous experience necessary.

Who Should Attend?
  • Executives who are considering their corporate strategy for managing risk by adding LOPA to their existing risk analysis process.
  • Safety specialist who are familiar with existing methods or who may already have some experience with LOPA
  • Engineers, chemists, operations and maintenance personnel, and others who may participate in LOPA reviews or who may be affected by LOPA recommendations or who implement the recommendations.
  • Persons who are responsible for compliance with process safety regulations.


As this course is not accredited there is no formal assessment, however our team can write a basic competency assessment to suit your needs and provide a certificate of completion.

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Regular price £850.00
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"We would like to thank Mr. Easton for this excellent training and organisation. We've learned a lot and it was a real pleasure to follow this training."

Joao, Switzerland

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